I-ITE isho ukuthi kwi-Ear Hearing Aid, ifakiwe i-ITC, IIC, CIC aid Aid. Iningi lazo lincane futhi lincane. Ngenxa yobukhulu bawo, silukhuni ukubathola lapho abantu begqoka kukho. Ngenkathi izinsiza-kufundisa ezincane zingaqonda kakhudlwana, ungathola ukuthi ezinye zezitayela ezinkulu ezindlebeni kulula ukuzibeka noma uzisuse ikakhulukazi kungenzeka ukuthi unezinkinga ze-dexterity. Lokhu kungenza nezinsizakalo zokuzwa ezindlebeni kube lula ukuzihlanza nokuzigcina. Futhi i-IIC izinsiza ezincane kakhulu zokuzwa zincane kakhulu zihlala ngaphakathi komsele wendlebe lapho kungekho khona ongazibona. I-ITC noma amadivaysi e-CIC okuzwa anezisombululo ezincane zokulahleka kokuzwa. Kuqukethwe ngokuphelele ezimweni ezincane ezilingana ngokwengxenye noma ngokuphelele ngaphakathi komsele wendlebe. Abantu abaningi bayazithanda lezi ngoba zingasetshenziswa kalula ngocingo. Kodwa-ke, amadivaysi e-IIC, CIC ne-ITC anzima ukuwaphatha nokulungisa ngenxa yobukhulu bawo obuncane. Ngaphezu kwalokho, zingahle zingangeni ezindlebeni ezincane, futhi zinconyelwa kuphela kubantu abadala abathobekile ukuze balahlekelwe ukuzwa.

Umehluko nge-BTE Hearing Aid
Akunandaba noma i-ITC, i-IIC, i-CIC, ngisho nezinsiza zokuzwa ze-ITE, ngenxa yendlela yazo yokugqoka, zihlukile ngempela ngesitayela seBTE. Abantu abaningi bakhetha ithuluzi lokuzwa elihlala ngokuphelele endlebeni. Lesi sitayela kuthiwa yisetshenziswa i-ITE noma i "Endlebeni". Izigidi zabantu zigqoke lesi sitayela ngempumelelo enkulu. Imvamisa kungukukhetha kokuqala kokufakwa kwensiza yokuzwa okusha ngoba ezinye izinqumo ze-ITE zibhekwa njengokwakhiwa okungabonakali kangako.

Lapho silinganisa iziguli ezine-BTE "Behind the Ear" amamodeli, siyakwazi ukubeka amandla amaningi (ukukhulisa okwengeziwe) kudivayisi yokuzwa. Lokhu kuyadingeka njalo njengoba ukulahleka kweziguli kukhuphuka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Lo mklamo futhi unezinzuzo ezingeziwe zokulawula impendulo (lelo khala elicasulayo) kwesinye isikhathi elibonwa ekubumbeni kwe-ITE.

SEBENZISA ITE noma izinsiza zokuzwa ze-BTE zincike kwizidingo zamakhasimende akho, isitayela se-ITE asibonakali kakhulu futhi isitayela se-BTE sikhulisa ngokwengeziwe kepha siyabonakala. Ngokuvamile, sincoma ukuthi izingane zisebenzise uhlobo lwe-BTE futhi uhlobo lwabantu abadala lwe-BTE nohlobo lwe-ITE.

I-in-the-Ear (ITE) izinsiza zokuzwa (bheka isithombe 3-9) zihlukaniswa ngezinsizakusebenza zokuzwa igobolondo eligcwele i-ITE okugcwele kulo lonke uhlangothi lwendlebe ngokusho kwendawo yazo endlebeni. Kunezinhlobo ezintathu zezinsiza zokuzwa igobolondo le-ITE-isigamu nezinsiza zokuzwa zephrofayela ye-ITE-kwezinye izindwani zezindlebe. Esiswini sokuzwa
Usizo lokuzwa lungezinsiza zokuzwa ezenziwe ngokwezifiso ezisetshenziswa kakhulu njengamanje, futhi usizo lokuzwa ludinga ukwenziwa ngezifiso ngamagobolondo ahlukene ngokuya ngezinhlobo zezindlebe zeziguli ezahlukahlukene.
Kukhona nezinye izinsiza zokuzwa ngendlebe. Ubungako bokusizwa okunjalo buhleliwe. Ogqokayo kufanele enze isikhunta sendlebe esilinganayo, abese eshumeka insiza yokuzwa kulokho okubunjiweyo bese eyifaka endlebeni.

Ukwakheka okuyisisekelo kohlobo lwe-in-the-Ear kanye no-in-the-Ear mofuta wokusizwa kufana, futhi kwakhiwa indlu, imakrofoni, isikhulisi sesihlanganisi esihlanganisiwe, i-potentiometer, kanye ne-receiver (bheka umfanekiso 3 -10).
1. igobolondo
Izinsizakusebenza zombili ezindlebeni kanye naphakathi nazo zingamagobolondo abekiwe ngokwejamo lomsele wendlebe yesiguli (endlebeni ifaka nomgodi wendlebe), futhi ukunyakaza kosizo lokuzwa kufakwa egobolondweni. Izinto ezibonakalayo ezifakwayo zidinga ukungabi yingozi, azibangeli ukungalingani, zizinzile ngokwemvelo, azithinteki kalula ngokushisa, njll., Akulula ubudala, futhi zinendawo ebushelelezi ngaphandle kokungcola.
Uhlobo losizo lwe-earphone yohlobo lwezindlebe lufakwe nomlawuli wevolumu, ifayela lokulungiswa kwamathoni, ifayela lokulungiswa komsindo okuphezulu, nokunye okunjalo, futhi ezinye izinto zokusetshenziselwa endlebeni noma ezindlebeni zinehlelo. izinkinobho zokushintsha. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ezinye izinsiza zokuzwa zibuye zifakwe ngentambo yokudonsela ohlangothini olungaphandle, kuthi kufakwe nomsindo wokuxaka umsindo endaweni yokuphuma komsindo.
2. imakrofoni

Umdwebo: Usizo endlebeni

I-potentiometer yokulawula eyi-1-Volume
I-2-Microphone
I-3-Amplifier
I-4-Trimmer potentiometer
5-Igobolondo
6-Umamukeli

Umdwebo: Ukwakheka kwezinsiza zokuzwa endlebeni nangaphakathi


Ngenxa yefomu elikhudlwana lezinto zokusiza endlebeni nangaphakathi, kungafakwa imakrofoni ezihambisanayo. Izinsizakuzwa ezindlebeni ezigcwele yendlebe kunzima ukuzifaka ngemakrofoni ehambisanayo.
3. Okuhlanganisiwe kwesifunda
Ngenxa yokufakelwa kwezakhi ze-elekthronikhi nokwanda kokuhlanganiswa kwe-elekthronikhi, izikhulisi zezihlanganisi ezihlanganisiwe zezinsizakalo zokuzwa seziya ngokuya zanda. Ikakhulu, ukucutshungulwa kwesiginali yedijithali kuyasetshenziswa, okungangeza imisebenzi eminingi ngaphandle kokungeza izinto ezengeziwe futhi kuthathe isikhala esilinganiselwe sosizo lokuzwa. Lokhu kuhlinzeka ngemibandela yokwenza izinsiza zokuzwa ezincane nezincono ngokugcwele.
4. ibhethri
Izinsiza-kusebenza ezindlebeni zivame ukusebenzisa amabhethri e-A13, izinsiza kusebenza ezindlebeni zivame ukusebenzisa amabhethri e-A312, futhi izinsiza zokuzwa ezindlebeni ezisebenzisa izindlebe zisebenzisa i-A10 noma amabhethri e-A5.

1. Izinguquko kuFrquency Frequency ye-Ear Ear Canal
Imvamisa ye-resonance ye-canal yangaphandle yabantu abadala ingaba ngu-2000 kuye ku-4000 Hz. Isilinganiso somqondo yi-3359 Hz kwabesilisa kanye nama-3440 Hz kwabesifazane. Imvamisa ye-earonance yendlebe yabantu abadala ekalwa nguBu Xingkuan ingu (2583 ± 323) Hz, futhi inani eliphakeme lokuthola kwemvamisa ye-canal resonance frequency ku-2500 Hz ingafinyelela ku-11-12dB.
Lapho isiguli sigqoka usizo lokuzwa endlebeni, imvamisa yenani eliphakeme kakhulu lomthamo womsindo ku-5118 ~ 5638Hz, okubonisa ukuthi insiza yokuzwa endlebeni isenomthelela othize oseceleni lokufuduka kwendlela. , kepha igcinwa ngokufana nefomu lomsele lendlebe lomuntu elijwayelekile. Isikhundla esijwayelekile, kanye namandla abo okunxephezela amaza amafushane. Ngakho-ke, ukugqoka izinsizakalo zokuzwa ezinjalo kungothuthukisa ukuqonda kwesiguli.
2. Ijika lokuphendula elivama losizo endlebeni
Inani eliphakeme kakhulu lejika lemvamisa yokusabela kwensiza esezindlebeni limayelana ne-2500-2700Hz, eliseduze nesiqongo sethoni lendlebe yangaphandle kumuntu ojwayelekile. UGao Jianlin nabanye bakholelwa ukuthi ibanga lokuvama kokuphendula imvamisa yezinsizakalo zokuzwa endlebeni licishe libe ngama-200 ~ 7500Hz, futhi nobubanzi bemvamisa bubanzi, cishe obuhlanganisa indawo yolimi endlebeni yomuntu. Ijika lokuphendula imvamisa liyashintshashintsha kancane, kanti ijika ligobile, elihambisana nendlebe yomuntu. Impendulo yokuzwa ngokufana iyafana, ngakho-ke ingakhulisa imiphumela yokuzwa.
Ukuhlolwa kukaGao Jianlin kukhombisa ukuthi isinxephezelo sokuzwa ku-1000Hz, 2000Hz, kanye ne-4000Hz yezinsiza zokuzwa ezindlebeni kanye nosizo lokuzwa ngendlebe ngu-25-33dB, ngenkathi isinxephezelo sokuzwa ku-250-500Hz singama-20-24dB. Ikhono lokubuyisana kokuzwa langaphambili likhulu kunelokugcina.
3. Inzuzo yomsindo endaweni yemakrofoni
Kunemisiko eminingi ohlangothini olungaphandle lwe-auricle yomuntu, eyakha iqembu elifanayo lezibuko ze-concave. Bangakhombisa futhi banciphise umsindo ovela ezweni langaphandle, ngaleyo ndlela bekhulisa umfutho womsindo ovela ezweni langaphandle endaweni yamakhrofoni. Uma kuqhathaniswa nezinsizakuzwa zangemuva kwezindlebe, imakrofoni yosizo yokuzwa endlebeni itholakala endlebeni, futhi umphumela wayo wokusiza ukuzwa uvuselelwa yilesi simiso. Izikhundla zokwenziwa ngamathavu kanye / noma endlebeni esetshenziswayo esetshenziswa endlebeni nangaphakathi kwezindlebe zokusiza zihlukile, kanti nezikhundla zemakrofoni zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinsiza kusebenza zokuzwa ezindlebeni zihlukile, ngakho izinzuzo zabo zomsindo nazo zihlukile. UGao Jianlin ubuye wathola kulolo cwaningo ukuthi inzuzo yomsindo kumbhobho wosizo lokuzwa endlebeni ingu-5.94 kuye ku-6.46dB SPL, ngesilinganiso esingu- (6. 29 ± 1.09) dB SPL; insiza yokuzwa endlebeni ingu-6.90-9. Isilinganiso ngu (8. 08 ± 1.83) dB SPL; izindlebe ezigcwele zomgudu wokuzwa u-8. 80 ~ 9. 30dB SPL, kanti okumaphakathi ngu (9. 01 ± 1.73) dB SPL. Kunokwehluka okukhulu phakathi kwalokhu abathathu.
Lokhu kukhombisa ukuthi inzuzo yomsindo osendaweni yemakrofoni yosizo lokuzwa ngendlebe yonke enkulu kunayo yonke, ilandelwe yinsiza yokuzwa ngendlebe, bese kuba nosizo lokuzwa endlebeni. Njengoba leli nani litholakala lapho usizo lokuzwa lungakhishwa, inzuzo yemisindo endaweni yemakrofoni ihlobene ne-anatomy, izici zomzimba we-auricle, kanye nesitayela sosizo lokuzwa, futhi akunakwenza lutho ngamandla we usizo lokuzwa.

Izinzuzo zezinsizakusebenza zokuzwa endlebeni kuqhathaniswa nezinsizakalo zokuzwa endlebeni nokugcwele:
Range Uhla olufanele ukulahleka kokuzwa lubanzi futhi amandla okukhipha makhulu.
② Ungafaka kalula izinto ezengeziwe ezifana nemakrofoni ehambisanayo, amaikhoyili wokuhamba.
Kulula ukufakwa esikhundleni sebhethri futhi uguqule ivolumu kunelena yokuzwa ngendlebe nosizo oluphelele lwendlebe yokuzwa.

Ukuntuleka kwezinsizakalo zokuzwa ezindlebeni kubandakanya:
④ Ngoba i-canal yendlebe yengane ayithuthukisiwe futhi ayakhiwe, igobolondo lidinga ukushintshwa njalo, ngakho-ke alifanele ukusetshenziswa.
② Iqhathaniswa nosizo lokuzwa ngemuva, futhi imakrofoni itholakala eduze nendawo okuphumayo, futhi kulula ukukhipha impendulo ethokozisayo.
Okwalabo asebekhulile nalabo abanezandla ezingashintshi, akulula ukushintsha ibhethri bese ulungisa ivolumu.
Noma itholakala endlebeni, ukwakheka kwayo kukhulu kakhulu futhi kulula ukubona.
⑤ I-Cerumen kulula ukungena kuyo insiza yokuzwa ngokusebenzisa umgodi womsindo, okuholela kumonakalo wokunyakaza kwangaphakathi.
Ear I-earrings cavity yensimbi yokuzwa igcwalisa i-cavity yendlebe yonke, futhi ezinye iziguli zingazizwa zingakhululekile ngenxa yokuthi isikhumba esiningi sivaliwe.
⑦ Njengokusizwa kwe-BTE kwezinsizakalo okukhulunywe ngazo ngaphambili, ukuxhuma izindlebe kungenzeka kalula

Ububanzi bamandla wezinsiza-zokuzwa endlebeni ngokuvamile buba ngama-40 kuye kwangama-110 dB. Kuhlanganisa izici zayo zokuqaqamba nezinzuzo kanye nokubi, izinsiza zokuzwa ezindlebeni zivame ukulungele iziguli ezinokulahlekelwa okuthe xaxa kwezindlebe kodwa azifuni ukugqoka izinsizakalo zokuzwa ngemuva. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngenxa yokuthi bangafaka kalula izingxenye ezengeziwe ezisizayo, zilungele kakhulu ukusebenza kosizo lokuzwa iziguli eziphezulu; kubantu abaneminyaka ephakathi nendawo nabadala noma iziguli ezinezandla eziguquguqukayo kanye nokulahlekelwa okunamandla kwezindlebe, ungacabanga nokukhethwa kwezinsiza kusebenza ezindlebeni.

  • Izinsiza-kusebenza ezindlebeni

Insiza yokuzwa ngendlebe ibhekisa kuhlobo losizo lokuzwa olwenzelwe umugqa wamanzi wokucwaninga wangaphandle wesiguli futhi luqale endlebeni yendlebe lume eduze kwejika lesibili.

  • Ukuhlukaniswa kwezinsiza zokuzwa

Izinsizakuzwa ze-in-the-canal (ITC) (bheka umfanekiso 3-11) nazo ziyizinsiza zokuzwa ezenziwe ngomkhuba. Ngokungafani nezinsizakalo zokuzwa ezindlebeni, izinsiza-kusebenza endlebeni zitholakala kumgodi wendlebe wesiguli. Ngokuya ngosayizi, izinsiza zokuzwa ngendlebe zingahlukaniswa ihlukaniswe ngendlebe (ITC), umsele omncane wendlebe (ITC encane noma umsele omncane), nomsele wendlebe ophelele
(CIC) izinhlobo ezintathu zosizo lokuzwa. Izinsizakalo zokuzwa ngendlebe ephelele zinamazinga amabili. Kungemva kokuthi kuhlangatshezwane nalezi zindinganiso ezimbili lapho kungabizwa khona ngokuthi izinsiza zokuzwa ngendlebe eziphelele, futhi inzuzo engcono kakhulu kanye nokuphuma kungatholakala. Okokuqala, ingxenye eseceleni yecal canal yokuzwa yokusizwa ekhonjiswe kuMfanekiso 3-11 kufanele okungenani ibe seduze komsele wendlebe ongaphandle noma 1 kuya ku-2 mm ngaphakathi komsele wendlebe; okwesibili, ingxenye yezokwelapha kufanele ibe ngaphakathi kuka-5 mm ukusuka engxenyeni engenhla ye-eardrum.
Uma umsizi wokuzwa ngendlebe ophelele uhluleka ukufeza la maphuzu amabili angenhla, ingathola kuphela usizo lomsele ogcwele wendlebe, futhi lungabizwa ngokuthi lusiza oludonsa ngendlebe. Insiza yokuzwa ngendlebe nayo itholakala emgudwini wendlebe, kodwa ikhudlwana kancane kuneleya egcwele yendlebe nezinsizakalo ezincane zomgudu wokuzwa ngendlebe.

I-canal canal yokuzwa yezindlebe ayigcini nje ngokuba nezimpawu ezisekucashunwe ngenhla kosizo lokuzwa endlebeni, kodwa futhi ivumelana ngokwengeziwe nezimpawu zomzimba wendlebe yendlebe yomuntu, nomphumela wokukhulisa izindlebe ungcono.
1. Izinguquko kuFormal Mouth Frequencies
Lapho isiguli sifaka umsizi we-canal yokuzwa ngendlebe, imvamisa yenani eliphakeme kakhulu lomsindo ozwakalayo kumbhobho iku-4733-5179 Hz, esondele kakhulu isikhundla imvamisa yepheyinti lendlebe yangaphandle kubantu abavamile .
2. Izinguquko kumthelela wokuguquguquka ngemuva kokuvinjwa kwendlela yomsele
I-meatory yangaphandle yokudla yisithole esiyimpumputhe. Ngokusho komqondo we-acoustic, ithubhu elivaliwe linomphumela wokukhulisa amandla emisukweni yamagagasi omsindo izikhathi eziphindwe kayi-4 ubude bethhubhu. Isibonelo, ubude be -hubhu buyi-2.5 cm, futhi ubukhulu be-acoustic wavelength frequency resonance buyi-10 cm, ngokuya ngejubane lama-344 m. ukubalwa, imvamisa ye-resonance ingu-3440Hz. Ikholomu yomoya esethhubhu ibuye iye ekugudwini komsindo walokhu okuvama, ukuze umfutho womsindo owenzeka njalo lapho uvama ukuphela kwempumphu.
Insiza yokuzwa ngendlebe "ivimba ishubhu" yomsele wokuqanjwa kwangaphandle, ifinyeze ubude bomugqa wamandla wokucwaninga wangaphandle, futhi ihambisa imvamisa enkulu ngaphambili. Kulokhu, imininingwane enengqondo yemvamisa yokukhuluma yandiswa kahle, ukuze isixazululo sokuqonda sithuthukiswe kakhulu.
3. Umphumela wolondolozo we-Aura nokulondolozwa komthombo womsindo

Umsebenzi oyinhloko womzimba we-auricle ukusukela, ukuthola, ukuqoqa nokukhulisa imisindo yangaphandle. I-auricle ejwayelekile inomsebenzi wokuqoqa umsindo, futhi isakhiwo esingalingani ngaphezulu kwe-auricle sikhiqiza ukuvela okuhlukile kwimithombo yomsindo kusuka kwendawo eyehlukene nokuphakama, futhi sinomphumela wokukhulisa amandla ngokuzwakalayo kumvamisa othile. Lo msebenzi we-auricle ungakhiqiza umphumela wokuhlunga, obhekwe ukuthi ubambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekutholakaleni komthombo ozwakalayo. Insiza yokuzwa ngendlebe itholakala emgudwini wendlebe futhi igcina ukwakheka okujwayelekile kwe-auricle, ngakho-ke kuyasiza ukukhulisa umsindo ngokwemvelo nokuthola umthombo womsindo.
4. Umphumela womgodi womsindo osondelene ne-eardrum ekuzuzeni komsindo
Okokuqala, ngoba ibanga phakathi kwendawo yokuzwa yokusizwa kokuzwa kanye ne-eardrum lifinyeziwe, umsindo owakhiwe ungasebenza ngokuqondile ku-eardrum, ngakho-ke ukuhlanekezela kuncane. Okwesibili, insimbi yokuzwa ngendlebe ifakwa emgudwini wendlebe, okuholela ekunciphisweni kwevolumu yomsele wendlebe yangaphandle. Ngokusho kobudlelwano obuphakathi phakathi kwevolumu nengcindezi, ivolumu liyancipha futhi nengcindezi iyanda. Ngakho-ke, lapho ugqoke insimbi yokuzwa ngendlebe, umfutho wayo womsindo uzokwenyuka.

Uma kuqhathaniswa nezinsizakuzwa zangemuva kwezindlebe naphakathi kwendlebe, izinzuzo zezinsiza zokuzwa ngendlebe zihlanganisa:
① Ukwakheka kuncane, okungahlangabezana nezidingo zobuhle zeziguli, futhi kukhululekile ukugqoka.
Itholakala emsebeni wendlebe, igcina ukwakheka okujwayelekile kwe-auricle, okuhambisana kakhulu nezimpawu zomzimba nezindlebe zendlebe yomuntu, futhi kusiza ukuthuthukisa ukuzuza komsindo nokuzwakala komthombo wendawo.

Ukungemi kahle kosizo lokuzwa ngendlebe kufaka:
① Njengasosizo lokuzwa endlebeni, njengoba umsele wendlebe wengane ungakhuli futhi ungakheki, igobolondo lidinga ukushintshwa njalo, ngakho-ke izingane kufanele zisebenzise ngokuqapha.
Ear Insiza yokuzwa ngendlebe ilungele kuphela iziguli ezinokulahlekelwa okuthe xaxa noma okuphakathi. Njengamanje, usizo lokuzwa ngendlebe olunamandla amakhulu lufanele kuphela ezigulini ezinomkhawulo ojwayelekile wokuzwa we-90 kuye ku-95 dB.
③ I-adjuster yebhethri nevolumu yensiza yokuzwa endlebeni incane kunaleyo esizwa endlebeni, ngakho-ke kunzima ngokwengeziwe ukuyisebenzisa.
④ Njengoba kushiwo ngaphambili, ngenxa yesikhala esincane sangaphakathi, insiza yokuzwa ngendlebe kungenzeka ikhiqize impendulo ye-acoustic, futhi ingaxhunywa ohlelweni lwe-FM.
⑤ Njengokusizwa kokuzwa ezindlebeni, izinsiza-kusebenza endlebeni zitholakala emgodini wendlebe futhi zitholakala kakhulu emiphumeleni ye-radon.
⑥ Njengokusizwa kokuzwa ezindlebeni, nazo zingakhiqiza imiphumela yokuxhuma izindlebe.

Njengamanje, amandla okusetshenziswa ngokujwayelekile kwezinsiza zokuzwa ngendlebe kaningi angaphansi kwe-80 dB, kanti ezinye izinhlobo zezinhlobo ezithile zezinsizakuzwa zezindlebe zamandla amakhulu zingafinyelela ku-90 kuye ku-100 dB, kepha izinhlelo zomtholampilo azisakazeki. Izinsiza zokuzwa njengamanje zisetshenziswa kakhulu emaqenjini alandelayo:
① Iziguli ezisencane, zinokunciphisa ukulahleka kokuzwa okulinganiselayo, futhi zinezidingo eziphakeme zokusiza ukuzwa.
People Abantu abaneminyaka ephakathi nendawo nabadala abanokuthobeka okuncane kokuzwa okulinganiselwe, izandla eziguqukayo nezidingo eziphakeme zomphumela wokusiza wokuzwa nokubukeka.
③ Ukulahlekelwa okujwayelekile kokujwayelekile kungaphansi kwe-80-85dB. Ezigulini ezinokwehla kokuzwa okunefrikhwensi ephansi kanye nokulahlekelwa okuphezulu kokuzwa, insiza yokuzwa ngendlebe inganikeza isinxephezelo esiphakeme kakhulu.

Ukubonisa yonke 11 imiphumela

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